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Coban E, Kayis E, Dexter F. The effect of few historical data on the performance of sample average approximation method for operating room scheduling. International Transactions in Operational Research 30:126-150, 2023  

Dexter F, Ledolter J, Titler SS, Epstein RH. Variability of the times remaining in surgical cases and the importance of knowing when closure has started. Perioperative Care and Operating Room Management 30:100299, 2023

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Dean A, Meisami A, Lam H, Van Oyen MP, Stromblad C, Kastango N. Quantile regression forest for individualized surgery scheduling. Health Care Management Science 25:682-709, 2022

Dexter F, Birchansky B, Epstein RH, Loftus RW. Average and longest expected treatment times for ultraviolet light disinfection of rooms. American Journal of Infection Control 50:61-66, 2022

Epstein RH, Dexter F, Maga JM, Marian AA. Evaluation of the start of surgical closure as a milestone for forecasting the time remaining to exit the operating room: A retrospective, observational cohort study. Perioperative Care and Operating Room Management 29:100280, 2022

Gañan-Cardenas E, Jiménez JC, Pemberthy-R JI. Bayesian hierarchical modeling of operating room times for surgeries with few or no historic data. Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing 36:687-702, 2022

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Ito M, Hoshino K, Takashima R, Suzuki M, Hashimoto M, Fujii H. Does case-mix classification affect predictions? A machine learning algorithm for surgical duration estimation. Healthcare Analytics 2:100119, 2022

Jiao Y, Xue B, Lu C, Avidan MS, Kannampallil T. Continuous real-time prediction of surgical case duration using a modular artificial neural network. British Journal of Anaesthesia 128:829-837, 2022

Kantarevic J, Chami N, Vinden C, Nadolski J, Adamson M, Li Y, Weir S, Wright JG, McClure A, Hill S. COVID-19 and the duration of operating room procedures in Ontario: a population-based retrospective study. Canadian Journal of Surgery 65:E675-E682, 2022

Lam SSW, Zaribafzadeh H, Ang BY, Webster W, Buckland D, Mantyh C, Tan HK. Estimation of surgery durations using machine learning methods-a cross-country multi-site collaborative study. Healthcare 10:1191, 2022

Lee SH, Dai T, Phan PH, Moran N, Stonemetz J. The association between timing of elective surgery scheduling and operating theater utilization: a cross-sectional retrospective study. Anesthesia and Analgesia 134:455-462, 2022

Simmons CG, Alvey NJ, Kaizer AM, Williamson K, Faruki AA, Kacmar RM, Jevtovic-Todorovic V, Weitzel NS. Benchmarking of anesthesia and surgical control times by Current Procedural Terminology (CPT®) codes. Journal of Medical Systems 46:19, 2022

Wang Z, Dexter F. More accurate, unbiased predictions of operating room times increase labor productivity with the same staff scheduling provided allocated hours are increased. Perioperative Care and Operating Room Management 29:100286, 2022


Martinez O, Martinez C, Parra CA, Rugeles S, Suarez DR. Machine learning for surgical time prediction. Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine 208:106220, 2021

Reeves JJ, Waterman RS, Spurr KR, Gabriel RA. Efficiency metrics at an academic freestanding ambulatory surgery center: analysis of the impact on scheduled end-times. Anesthesia and Analgesia 133:1406-1414, 2021

Strömblad CT, Baxter-King RG, Meisami A, Yee SJ, Levine MR, Ostrovsky A, Stein D, Iasonos A, Weiser MR, Garcia-Aguilar J, Abu-Rustum NR, Wilson RS. Effect of a predictive model on planned surgical duration accuracy, patient wait time, and use of presurgical resources: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Surgery 156:315-321, 2021

Titler S, Dexter F, Epstein RH. Percentages of cases in operating rooms of sufficient duration to accommodate a 30-minute breast milk pumping session by anesthesia residents or nurse anesthetists. Cureus 13:e12519, 2021  

Yuniartha DR, Masruroh NA, Herliansyah MK. An evaluation of a simple model for predicting surgery duration using a set of surgical procedure parameters. Informatics in Medicine Unlocked 25:100633, 2021


Bellini V, Guzzon M, Bigliardi B, Mordonini M, Filippelli S, Bignami E. Artificial intelligence: a new tool in operating room management. Role of machine learning models in operating room optimization. Journal of Medical Systems 44:20, 2020

Hasiuk MMM, Pang DSJ. Predicting the duration of surgery and procedures in a veterinary referral center. Veterinary Surgery 49:561-569, 2020

Jiao Y, Sharma A, Ben Abdallah A, Maddox TM, Kannampallil T. Probabilistic forecasting of surgical case duration using machine learning: model development and validation. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 27:1885-1893, 2020

Merchant RN. Slated versus actual operating room entry time in a British Columbia health authority. Canadian Journal of Anesthesia 67:726-731, 2020

Pandit JJ. Rational planning of operating lists: a prospective comparison of 'booking to the mean' vs. 'probabilistic case scheduling' in urology. Anaesthesia 75:642-647, 2020

Parker SH, Lei X, Fitzgibbons S, Metzger T, Safford S, Kaplan S. The impact of surgical team familiarity on length of procedure and length of stay: inconsistent relationships across procedures, team members, and sites. World Journal of Surgery 44:3658-3667, 2020

Powezka K, Normahani P, Standfield NJ, Jaffer U. A novel team Familiarity Score for operating teams is a predictor of length of a procedure - a retrospective Bayesian analysis. Journal of Vascular Surgery 71:959-966, 2020

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Soh KW, Walker C, O’Sullivan M, Wallace J. An evaluation of the hybrid model for predicting surgery duration. Journal of Medical Systems 44:42, 2020

Soh KW, Walker C, O'Sullivan M, Wallace J, Grayson D. Case study of the prediction of elective surgery durations in a New Zealand teaching hospital. International Journal of Health Planning Management 35:1593-1605, 2020

Soh KW, Walker C, O'Sullivan M, Wallace J. Comparison of jackknife and hybrid-boost model averaging to predict surgery durations: a case study. SN Computer Science 1:316, 2020

Taaffe K, Pearce B, Ritchie G. Using kernel density estimation to model surgical procedure duration. International Transactions in Operational Research 28:401-418, 2020

Wang J, Cabrera J, Tsui KL, Guo H, Bakker M, Kostis JB. Clinical and nonclinical effects on operative duration: evidence from a database on thoracic surgery. Journal of Healthcare Engineering 2020:3582796, 2020


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Kougias P, Tiwari V, Sharath SE, Garcia A, Pathak A, Chen M, Ramsey D, Barshes N, Berger D. A statistical model-driven surgical case scheduling system improves multiple measures of operative suite efficiency: findings from a single-center, randomized controlled trial. Annals of Surgery 270:1000-1004, 2019

Tuwatananurak JP, Zadeh S, Xu X, Vacanti JA, Fulton WR, Ehrenfeld JM, Urman RD. Machine learning can improve estimation of surgical case duration: a pilot study. Journal of Medical Systems 43:44, 2019

Zhao B, Waterman RS, Urman RD, Gabriel RA. A machine learning approach to predicting case duration for robot-assisted surgery. Journal of Medical Systems 43:32, 2019


Dexter F, Bayman EO, Pattillo JCS, Schwenk ES, Epstein RH. Influence of parameter uncertainty on the tardiness of the start of a surgical case following a preceding surgical case performed by a different surgeon. Perioperative Care and Operating Room Management 13:12-17, 2018

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Dexter F, Epstein RH, Bayman EO, Ledolter J. Estimating surgical case durations and making comparisons among facilities: identifying facilities with lower anesthesia professional fees. Anesthesia & Analgesia 116:1103-1115, 2013  

Dexter F, Ledolter J, Tiwari V, Epstein RH. Value of a scheduled duration quantified in terms of equivalent numbers of historical cases. Anesthesia & Analgesia 117:204-209, 2013  

Franke S, Meixensberger J, Neumuth T. Intervention time prediction from surgical low-level tasks. Journal of Biomedical Informatics 46:152-159, 2013

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Tiwari V, Dexter F, Rothman BS, Ehrenfeld JM, Epstein RH. Explanation for the near constant mean time remaining in surgical cases exceeding their estimated duration, necessary for appropriate display on electronic white boards. Anesthesia & Analgesia 117:487-493, 2013  

Xu R, Carty MJ, Orgill DP, Lipsitz SR, Duclos A. The teaming curve: a longitudinal study of the influence of surgical team familiarity on operative time. Annals of Surgery 258:953-957, 2013


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Dexter F, Dexter EU, Ledolter J. Importance of appropriately modeling procedure and duration in logistic regression studies of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Anesthesia & Analgesia 113:1197-1201, 2011  

Pandit JJ, Tavare A. Using mean duration and variation of procedure times to plan a list of surgical operations to fit into the scheduled list time. European Journal of Anaesthesiology 28:493-501, 2011

Silber JH, Rosenbaum PR, Even-Shoshan O, Mi L, Kyle FA, Teng Y, Bratzler DW, Fleisher LA. Estimating anesthesia time using the Medicare claim: a validation study. Anesthesiology 115:322-333, 2011


Alvarez R, Bowry R, Carter M. Prediction of the time to complete a series of surgical cases to avoid cardiac operating room overutilization. Canadian Journal of Anesthesia 57:973-979, 2010

Chen TT, Chang YJ, Ku SL, Chung KP. Statistical process control as a tool for controlling operating room performance: retrospective analysis and benchmarking. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 10:905-910, 2010

Dexter EU, Dexter F, Masursky D, Kasprowicz KA. Prospective trial of thoracic and spine surgeons’ updating of their estimated case durations at the start of cases. Anesthesia & Analgesia 110:1164-1168, 2010  

Dexter F, Dexter EU, Ledolter J. Influence of procedure classification on process variability and parameter uncertainty of surgical case durations. Anesthesia & Analgesia 110:1155-1163, 2010  

Eijkemans MJC, van Houdenhoven M, Nguyen T, Boersma E, Steyerberg EW, Kazemier G. Predicting the unpredictable: A new prediction model for operating room times using individual characteristics and the surgeon's estimate. Anesthesiology 112:41-49, 2010

Li Y, Zhang S, Baugh RF, Huang JZ. Predicting surgical case durations using ill-conditioned CPT code matrix. IIE Transactions 42:121-135, 2010

Smallman B, Dexter F. Optimizing the arrival, waiting, and NPO times of children on the day of pediatric endoscopy procedures. Anesthesia & Analgesia 110:879-887, 2010  

Stepaniak PS, Heij C, de Vries G. Modeling and prediction of surgical procedure times. Statistica Neerlandica 64:1-18, 2010


Cassera MA, Zheng B, Martinec DV, Dunst CM, Swanstrom LL. Surgical time independently affected by surgical team size. American Journal of Surgery 198:216-222, 2009

Dexter F, Epstein RH, Lee JD, Ledolter J. Automatic updating of times remaining in surgical cases using Bayesian analysis of historical case duration data and "instant messaging" updates from anesthesia providers. Anesthesia & Analgesia 108:929-940, 2009  

Stepaniak PS, Heij C, Mannaerts GH, de Quelerij M, de Vries G. Modeling procedure and surgical times for current procedural terminology-anesthesia-surgeon combinations and evaluation in terms of case-duration prediction and operating room efficiency: a multicenter study. Anesthesia & Analgesia 109:1232-1245, 2009


Combes C, Meskens N, Rivat C, Vandamme JP. Using a KDD process to forecast the duration of surgery. International Journal of Production Economics 112:279-293, 2008

Dexter F, Dexter EU, Masursky D, Nussmeier NA. Systematic review of general thoracic surgery articles to identify predictors of operating room case durations. Anesthesia & Analgesia 106:1232-1241, 2008  


Dexter F, Macario A, Ledolter J. Identification of systematic underestimation (bias) of case durations during case scheduling would not markedly reduce overutilized operating room time. Journal of Clinical Anesthesia 19:198-203, 2007

Silber JH, Rosenbaum PR, Zhang X, Even-Shoshan O. Estimating anesthesia and surgical procedure times from Medicare anesthesia claims. Anesthesiology 106:346-355, 2007

Wachtel RE, Dexter F. A simple method for deciding when patients should be ready on the day of surgery without procedure-specific data. Anesthesia & Analgesia 105:127-140, 2007  


Dexter F, Davis M, Halbeis CE, Marjamaa R, Marty J, McIntosh C, Nakata Y, Thenuwara KN, Sawa T, Vigoda M. Mean operating room times differ by 50% among hospitals in different countries for laparoscopic cholecystectomy and lung lobectomy. Journal of Anesthesia 20:319-322, 2006

Dexter F, Yue JC, Dow AJ. Predicting anesthesia times for diagnostic and interventional radiological procedures. Anesthesia & Analgesia 102:1491-1500, 2006  

Ehrenwerth J, Escobar A, Davis EA, Watrous GA, Fisch GS, Kain ZN, Barash PG. Can the attending anesthesiologist accurately predict the duration of anesthesia induction? Anesthesia & Analgesia 103:938-940, 2006

Escobar A, Davis EA, Ehrenwerth J, Watrous GA, Fisch GS, Kain ZN, Barash PG. Task analysis of the preincision surgical period: an independent observer-based study of 1558 cases. Anesthesia & Analgesia 103:922-927, 2006

Pandit JJ, Carey A. Estimating the duration of common elective operations: implications for operating list management. Anaesthesia 61:768-776, 2006


Dexter F, Ledolter J. Bayesian prediction bounds and comparisons of operating room times even for procedures with few or no historic data. Anesthesiology 103:1259-1267, 2005  

Dexter F, Macario A, Epstein RH, Ledolter J. Validity and usefulness of a method to monitor surgical services’ average bias in scheduled case durations. Canadian Journal of Anesthesia 52:935-939, 2005  


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Dexter F, Traub RD, Fleisher LA, Rock P. What sample sizes are required for pooling surgical case durations among facilities to decrease the incidence of procedures with little historical data? Anesthesiology 96:1230-1236, 2002  


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Dexter F, Macario A. What is the relative frequency of uncommon ambulatory surgery procedures in the United States with an anesthesia provider? Anesthesia & Analgesia 90:1343-1347, 2000  

Dexter F, Traub RD. Statistical method for predicting when patients should be ready on the day of surgery. Anesthesiology 93:1107-1114, 2000  

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Strum DP, Sampson AR, May JH, Vargas LG. Surgeon and type of anesthesia predict variability in surgical procedure times. Anesthesiology 92:1454-1466, 2000


Dexter F, Traub RD, Qian F. Comparison of statistical methods to predict the time to complete a series of surgical cases. Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing 15:45-51, 1999

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